Bonus: We have some great shortcuts to make your life easier. You have multiple options to capitalize and change the case of your titles, headlines, song titles, book titles, email subjects, and more.
Below is a description of the ways you can use our case converter. The top tabs allow you to select which style of capitalization you want to use. You can learn more in the Title Capitalization Rules by Style section. The buttons at the bottom let you choose specific case conversion options for the various styles. This will uncapitalize your text. You can also use this tool to do it automatically. This will convert your text to uppercase.
Each of these capitalization styles has slightly different rules for which words are capitalized and each of these styles can be written using title case capitalization or sentence case capitalization. Title case is the most common form of title and headline capitalization and is found in all four major title capitalization styles. Title case is also commonly used for book titles, movies titles, song names, plays, and other works.
Title case is the most common title capitalization for book titles, headlines, articles titles, etc. When multiple letters in a title need to be capitalized, use title case capitalization. While the above words are generally capitalized in titles regardless of style, there are some words that are generally not capitalized when using title case.
Again, these will depend on the specific style you choose see Title Capitalization Rules by Style section. These include short words and conjunctions:.
The other major type of title capitalization standard is sentence case. For more specific title capitalization rules, you can see the following sections which cover each style of title capitalization rules or check out our FAQs for common capitalization questions. Our tool lets you convert the case of your text easily into sentence case.
The rules are fairly standard for title case:.And, unfortunately, even style guides disagree, complicating matters. However, here is a basic guide to the two most common methods, sentence case and title caseand the top differences between some of the main title capitalization styles.
For most of us, it's a matter of selecting one convention and sticking to it. In sentence case, which is the simplest, titles are treated more like sentences: You capitalize the first word of the title and any proper nouns not the same for subtitles.
In title case, on the other hand, which is the most prevalent in book titles and magazine and newspaper headlines, you capitalize the first and last words of the title and all nounspronounsadjectivesverbsadverbsand subordinating conjunctions ifbecauseasthatand so on.
In other words, all the important words. But this is where things start getting sticky. And when it comes to capitalization, it's the little words that they disagree on. According to "The Chicago Manual of Style," " articles a, an, thecoordinating conjunctions and, but, or, for, norand prepositionsregardless of length, are lowercased unless they are the first or last word of the title.
It calls for:. Other guides say that prepositions and conjunctions of fewer than five letters should be in lowercase—except at the beginning or end of a title.
For additional guidelines, see the glossary entry for title case. So, should you use sentence case or title case? When a hyphen is used with a prefix of two or three letters merely to separate doubled vowels or to clarify pronunciationlowercase after the hyphen: Co-op; Re-entry; Pre-empt.
But: Re-Sign; Co-Author. With a prefix of four letters or more, capitalize after the hyphen: Anti-Intellectual; Post-Mortem. One piece of advice on this subject comes from "The Chicago Manual of Style:" "Break a rule when it doesn't work. And if you want a little help, there are sites online that will check your titles for you. Share Flipboard Email.
Richard Nordquist. English and Rhetoric Professor.
Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. Updated November 05, This simple guide will help you capitalize words in titles and headings correctly. This guide explains the common rules and those that differ among the stylebooks. Capitalize the first word and last word in the title, even if the last word is one of the words in the list of words you should not capitalize.
Capitalize nouns and pronouns.
Nouns are the names of persons, places, or things. Capitalize verbs, the action words of the sentence and helping verbs. Just look for words that are connected to the verb. These are helping verbs: am, are, is, was, were, be, been, being, do, does, did, have, has, had, might, will, would, most, can, could, may, shall, should, ought to, and must. Capitalize it. Lowercase these prepositions: above, across, against, at, between, by, along, among, down, in, around, of, off, on, to, with, before, behind, below, beneath, down, from, near, toward, upon, and within.
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Revised on January 24, All major words in a title are capitalized. The same format is used in Works Cited list and in the text itself. When you use the Scribbr MLA Citation Generator, the correct formatting and capitalization is automatically applied to titles. In all titles and subtitles, capitalize the first and last word, as well as any other principal words.
Use the same punctuation as appears in the source title. If there is a subtitle, separate it from the main title with a colon and a space.
The exception is when the title ends in a question mark, exclamation point or dash, in which case you keep the original punctuation:. Scribbr Plagiarism Checker. For titles within titles, in general, maintain the same formatting as you would if the title stood on its own.
Titles and names that fall into the following categories are not italicized or enclosed in quotation marks:. Words that indicate a particular section of a work are not italicized or placed within quotation marks. They are also not capitalized when mentioned in the text.
In text: In her preface to the work, added in a later edition of the publication, Bronte debates the morality of creating characters such as those featured in Wuthering Heights. If there is a unique title for the introduction, preface, foreword or afterword, include that title in quotation marks, directly before the descriptive term, when referencing the source in the Works Cited list. There are some exceptions to this general format: descriptions including titles of other works, such as comments on articles or reviews of movies; untitled short messages, like tweets; and emails.
If you need to mention the name of a work in the text itself, state the full title, but omit the subtitle. If you need to refer to the work multiple times, you may shorten the title to something familiar or obvious to the reader. If in doubt, prefer the noun phrase.
If the standalone abbreviation may not be clear, you can introduce it in parenthesis following the standard guidelines for abbreviations. For Shakespeare and the Bible, there are well-established abbreviations you can use. When you abbreviate a title, be sure to keep the formatting consistent.
Even if the abbreviation consists only of letters, as in the MV example, it must be placed within quotation marks or italicized in the same way as you would if the source title were written in full. In the Works Cited list, if you are listing a work with a title in a language other than English, you can add the translated title in square brackets.
If you are using the foreign-language title in the text itself, you can also include the translation in parenthesis. For example, O Alquimista The Alchemist. This is optional and is recommended only if you think the reader will not understand what the foreign-language title refers to.
For works in a language that does not use the Latin alphabet, such as Arabic, Chinese, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, or Russian, be consistent with how you mention the source titles and also quotations from within them. For example, if you choose to write a Russian title in the Cyrillic form, do that throughout the document. If you choose to use the Romanized form, stick with that.
Do not alternate between the two. MLA Style uses title case, which means that all principal words nouns, pronounsverbs, adjectives, adverbs, and some conjunctions are capitalized.I used to think there were only two ways to use capitalization in a title: 1 Capitalize only the first word in the title except for proper nounswhich I learned working for a local newspaper; and 2 Capitalize the principal and longer words and lowercase the minor, shorter words, which I learned was wrong. I also came to learn that the rules for capitalization in titles—like the rules for other areas of English grammar—are not set in stone; style guides and grammarians disagree on which words to capitalize in a title.
Sentence case, or down style, is one method, preferred by many print and online publications and recommended by the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. The only two rules are the two rules mentioned above: Capitalize the first word and all proper nouns. Everything else is in lowercase.
For example:.Capitalization Rules - When to Use Uppercase and Capital Letters - English Writing Essentials - ESL
Another method is to capitalize all words in a title. Title case, or up style, is another method. Whether or not you capitalize a word in a title depends on its part of speech. According to most style guides that use title case, the basic rules are as follows:. That last rule for title case is upheld by some style guides, but not all. The Chicago Manual of Style follows that rule except in cases in which an article, preposition, or coordinating conjunction is the first or last word in a title.
However, The Associated Press would have you capitalize prepositions and conjunctions if they are four or more letters long. For others, the magic number is five rather than four. So, according to some guides, you have to worry not only about the part of speech, but also about the length of the words.
I used to follow it myself see my first paragraph. Many writers mistakenly believe that in a title, you should capitalize the principal and longer words and lowercase the minor, shorter words.
However, short words can be nouns, pronouns, and verbs, etc. Part of speech is more important than length when it comes to determining capitalization in titles. Pick one or follow the style guide of your employer, school, or clients and stick with it. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Thanks for these tips. I love this post! For such a seemingly small item for a blog post, it was stressing me out!According to most style guides, nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs are the only words capitalized in titles of booksarticles, and songs.
The example below illustrates this rule:. Shakespeare wrote Romeo and Juliet. Shakespeare wrote Romeo And Juliet. Grammarly can save you from misspellings, grammatical and punctuation mistakes, and other writing issues on all your favorite websites. The and in Romeo and Juliet should not be capitalized because it is a conjunction.
The exception to the rule, when it comes to prepositions, is that if the word contains six or more letters, it should be capitalized. East of Eden was a popular book by John Steinbeck. The sitcom Two and a Half Men explores the lives of two brothers. Real-time suggestions, wherever you write.
Capitalization in Titles Grammarly. The example below illustrates this rule: Shakespeare wrote Romeo and Juliet. Virginia Woolf wrote Orlando: A Biography. Grammar Tone vs. Writing, grammar, and communication tips for your inbox. Write with confidence. Get real-time suggestions wherever you write.E-Quadrat Communications GmbH All rights reserved. Welcome to the FREE BETTING Tipster competition, organised by Typersi. You can also enter match scores for ended matches.
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Guide to Capitalizing Words in Titles and Headings
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MLA titles: formatting and capitalization rules
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